By Luz, N.; Silva, N.; Novais, P.
Artificial Intelligence Review
Since the advent of artificial intelligence, researchers have been trying to create machines that emulate human behaviour. Back in the 1960s however, Licklider (IRE Trans Hum Factors Electron 4-11, 1960) believed that machines and computers were just part of a scale in which computers were on one side and humans on the other (human computation). After almost a decade of active research into human computation and crowdsourcing, this paper presents a survey of crowdsourcing human computation systems, with the focus being on solving micro-tasks and complex tasks. An analysis of the current state of the art is performed from a technical standpoint, which includes a systematized description of the terminologies used by crowdsourcing platforms and the relationships between each term. Furthermore, the similarities between task-oriented crowdsourcing platforms are described and presented in a process diagram according to a proposed classification. Using this analysis as a stepping stone, this paper concludes with a discussion of challenges and possible future research directions.